Microphone in front of a crowd

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Articles about performance anxiety, aka “stage fright,” usually start the same way: Surveys reveal that Americans fear public speaking more than anything else, including death. Well, I’m pleased to report that public speaking is now just Americans’ #33 fear (according to The Chapman University Survey on American Fears, 2016). This means it falls well behind such favorites as “widespread civil unrest” (#28), “nuclear weapons attack” (#18), and, of course, “reptiles” (#13). However, we Americans continue to fear public speaking more than death (#59), so I suppose there’s still work to do.

If speaking or performing in front of people freaks you out, you’re hardly alone. Stage fright is super common. To quote Mark Twain: “There are two types of speakers: those that are nervous and those that are liars.” Even people who enjoy public speaking, or are elite performers, get nervous. Adele told Rolling Stone, “I’m scared of audiences…. One show in Amsterdam, I was so nervous I escaped out the fire exit. I’ve thrown up a couple of times.” It hasn’t exactly held Adele back, and it doesn’t need to hold you back either.

Presenting in public is a high-value skill

Psychologists and biologists have developed a comprehensive understanding of performance anxiety: both what causes it and how to manage it. That’s a good thing, because the ability to get up in front of people is a skill well worth having. Verbal communication skills are among the top skills that employers look for, according to a 2015 survey by the National Association of Colleges and Employers. In a 2015 analysis by LinkedIn, the most sought-after “soft skill” in the workplace was “communication”—and that includes communicating in public, to multiple people.

Stage fright is a thing we can work with

If you have stage fright, you already know how it feels—the racing heart, the stomach butterflies—but here’s what’s actually happening in your body and mind:

Your sympathetic nervous system, which governs the flight-or-fight response, takes over and floods your body with norepinephrine and other hormones (Science, 2011). These hormones trigger a surge of energy and an increase in your breathing and heart rate. Meanwhile, the parts of your brain dealing with rational thought begin to go offline. This would be a perfectly healthy and useful response if you were facing down a saber-toothed tiger. In that situation, you need to default to instinct (e.g., run). Unfortunately, the fear response is less helpful when we’re trying to deliver a piano concerto or speech. Today, our fears are usually not about immediate, serious dangers. But we can perceive danger in being judged negatively or critiqued, and that can trigger the same old responses in us.

We can deal with this. Anxiety about giving public performances is eminently treatable; the main problem is a lack of information. In a 2011 study of 160 music students, half of the respondents admitted that they knew little or nothing about coping strategies for stage fright (International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health). Yet two in three expressed willingness to accept support and all of them wanted to learn more.

Five ways to slay the angst and own the show

Vector image of leaders speaking to a crowd

1. Cognitive-behavioral approaches

Cognitive-behavioral (“CB”) techniques are an effective way to reduce performance anxiety, research shows. This therapeutic approach has two steps, experts say. “It entails recognizing and altering the faulty thoughts contributing to the fear,” says Dr. Rachel Koslowski, a clinical psychologist with expertise in anxiety, who practices privately in New York City. Then, “integrating behavioral techniques to assuage anxiety,” she says. These three strategies can help:


Create a “fear hierarchy”: a list of situations that make you anxious, arranged from least to most anxiety-provoking. Then tackle these situations one at a time. For example, “Reading a paragraph from this article aloud to your roommate could be the scenario that makes you the least anxious… followed by speaking to a stranger at a party, then asking a question in a meeting… then offering to speak at an event,” says Dr. Rachel Koslowski, a clinical psychologist in New York City. Practice each goal until you are truly comfortable before moving on.

Dr. Koslowski suggests you “identify the unhelpful thoughts that come to mind when you think about performing in public.” The process looks like this:

  • Identify the thought that accompanies your anxiety; for example, “My presentation is going to go horribly, and I’ll never be good enough.”
  • Challenge that thought with questions like these:
    • What is the evidence that your presentation will go badly?
    • Why should the quality of your presentation determine your worth as a person?
  • Once you have recognized the flaws in your thinking, replace the original thought with a more helpful and less distorted one, such as, “I’ve prepared extensively for this presentation and have no reason to think it will go badly. Plus, it’s just a presentation; even if it did go badly, that wouldn’t impact my life in any major way.”

Those sensations of pre-performance anxiety you feel in your body? Just reframe them as excitement, instead of something sinister. Sped-up heart, fluttery stomach—these occur if you have performance anxiety, sure, but also if you’re about to meet Rihanna or open a college acceptance letter.

Consider also that the physiological changes brought on by stress are, in many ways, specifically designed by evolution to improve performance (Emotion, 2014). Studies have shown that viewing anxiety symptoms as excitement and reframing them as helpful can improve performance in public speaking, musical performance, and sports. It’s easy to do: In one study, participants accomplished it simply by saying “I am excited” out loud before performing (Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 2014).

2. Mindfulness-based methods

Mindfulness, a simple mental practice derived from meditation, is also super helpful for coping with stage fright. I’m a mindfulness teacher, so I’m all about using these techniques to handle uncomfortable thoughts and situations. And I have science backing me up. Research has shown that mindfulness can reduce anxiety (Clinical Psychology Review, 2013; Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 2010). Performance anxiety is no exception. I feel anxious whenever I present in front of people, and my mindfulness practice is what gets me through it. Try these two strategies:

That’s my label for this ancient technique:

When anxious thoughts arise, mentally label them “thinking.”

When uncomfortable sensations in your body arise, mentally label them “feeling.”

When I get anxious about a presentation, I close my eyes and start labeling. The pounding of my heart and the butterflies in my stomach become simply “feeling.” Thoughts like “I’m going to mess up” or “people are going to laugh” or “sweet merciful Oprah why am I doing this?” become simply “thinking.”

When we label thoughts “thinking,” we don’t buy into their stories. When we label body sensations “feeling,” we can observe them without getting frightened or overwhelmed by them.

This takes 30 seconds and has four simple steps:

  1. Take a slow, deep breath. Fill your lungs, then exhale slowly.
  2. Open your attention to the sensations in your body. Let yourself notice whatever comes up: warmth, tingling, pressure, or the touch of clothing. There’s no need to evaluate the sensations as “good” or “bad.” This step needn’t take longer than one in-breath or out-breath. Stay with it longer if you like, but it can be that quick.
  3. Pay gentle attention to the sensation of air touching your nostrils as you breathe. Just like the previous step, this step can be as short as one in-breath or one out-breath.
  4. Re-engage with the world, without hurry. Open your eyes if you’d closed them and carry on with your day.

3. Practical prep strategies

Best way to conquer stage fright: “know what you’re talking about,” says Dr. Mike Mescon, dean emeritus at Georgia State University. When it comes to public speaking, you can practice CB and mindfulness strategies until your brains leak out your ears, but there’s no substitute for preparation and understanding what makes a great presentation. I say that as someone who speaks in front of large audiences pretty often.

My best practical strategies for handling public performances

  • Practice Rehearse more than you think you need to. You want to be so comfortable with the material that it’s almost boring for you. Speak up: You’re talking quieter than you think.
  • Rehearse in front of a friend They’ll spot opportunities for improvement that you can’t on your own. Video yourself, so you can rehearse in front of you, too.
  • Embrace the pause It gives you time to collect your thoughts, sounds better than “um,” and adds dynamism to a presentation. As 19th-century English poet and essayist Martin Fraquhar Tupper said, “Well-timed silence hath more eloquence than speech.”
  • If you’re using slides, keep the text to a minimum People can’t read and listen at the same time. I use almost no text and keep my slides largely image-based. That said, images can be more powerful than words. And it’s fine to provide source references on a slide or in a handout.
  • If you want to have a written reference on hand, use note cards with bullet points Reading from a script sounds stilted; bullet points can jog your memory while letting you express yourself in a natural-sounding way.

4. Medication

Certain medications can reduce the symptoms of performance anxiety. If you’re interested in whether a medication-based approach may be right for you, talk with your doctor. Many musicians use medications (such as beta-blockers) to steady their hands and nerves for performances. This may be a short-term strategy: “Meds can be a good bridge to non-medication techniques; most people can get to a place of not needing them,” says Dr. Davis Smith, a physician at the University of Connecticut.

It’s worth trying other methods first. Music students participating in that 2011 study found that “breathing exercises” and “self-control techniques” were as effective as medication (International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, 2011).

5. A fearless alter ego

Here’s a solution that comes straight from celebrity performers: create an alter ego. Beyoncé’s tough, fearless stage persona “Sasha Fierce” inspired both Adele and actor/singer Hayden Panettiere to create alter egos of their own as a way of combating anxiety related to performing. Adele’s is called “Sasha Carter” (a fusion of Sasha Fierce and June Carter), while Hayden’s remains a mystery. Hayden, if you’re reading this, I suggest “Acty McSingFace.”

Podcast review: The Public Speaking Power Podcast by Ryan McLean

Jerome Siangco

Second-year undergraduate, College of the Holy Cross, Massachusetts

“Apparently I’m a rarity—I don’t think public speaking is scarier than death, but host Ryan McLean says a lot of people do. I listened to eight episodes. Through anecdotes and personal stories that span from running for class office in elementary school to being a pharmaceutical rep, McLean offers relatable experiences, advice, and resources to be more confident, comfortable, and—dare I say?—have fun with public speaking.”

USEFUL?  Rating: 5 out of 5 stars

The biggest thing people lack is confidence. McLean shares how to feel more comfortable—like not always having everything you want to say written out. Sometimes it’s best to just talk, to allow better flow and engagement.

FUN?  Rating: 4 out of 5 stars

Enjoyable. I liked the straightforward style and how he brought his personal stories and personality into each episode, making him even more relatable.

EFFECTIVE?  Rating: 5 out of 5 stars

Recently, when I presented to a panel of eight professionals, I took five deep breaths before entering the room, as McLean suggested. It made me feel calm and centered, and more prepared to present.

Listen now

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Article sources

Rachel Koslowski, PsyD, licensed clinical psychologist, New York City.

Beltzer, M. L., Nock, M. K., Peters, B. J., & Jamieson, J. P. (2014). Rethinking butterflies: The affective, physiological, and performance effects of reappraising arousal during social evaluation. Emotion, 14(4), 761.

Berger, G. (2016, August 30). Soft skills are increasingly crucial to getting your dream job. LinkedIn. Retrieved from https://www.linkedin.com/pulse/soft-skills-increasingly-crucial-getting-your-dream-guy-berger-ph-d-

Brooks, A. W. (2014). Get excited: Reappraising pre-performance anxiety as excitement. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 143(3), 1144–1158.

Chapman University. (2016, October 11). America’s top fears 2016—The Chapman University Survey of American Fears. Retrieved from https://blogs.chapman.edu/wilkinson/2016/10/11/americas-top-fears-2016/

Hermans, E. J., van Marle, H. J., Ossewaarde, L., Henckens, M. J., et al. (2011). Stress-related noradrenergic activity prompts large-scale neural network reconfiguration. Science, 334(6059), 1151–1153.

Hofmann, S. G., Sawyer, A. T., Witt, A. A., & Oh, D. (2010). The effect of mindfulness-based therapy on anxiety and depression: A meta-analytic review. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 78(2), 169.

Kenny, D. T. (2005). A systematic review of treatments for music performance anxiety. Anxiety, Stress, and Coping, 18(3), 183–208.

Khoury, B., Lecomte, T., Fortin, G., Masse, M., et al. (2013). Mindfulness-based therapy: A comprehensive meta-analysis. Clinical Psychology Review, 33(6), 763–771.

King, C. R. (2012, December 18). Hayden Panettiere overcomes stage fright as singer. SFGate. Retrieved from https://www.sfgate.com/tv/article/Hayden-Panettiere-overcomes-stage-fright-as-singer-4129194.php

Moore, L. J., Vine, S. J., Wilson, M. R., & Freeman, P. (2015). Reappraising threat: How to optimize performance under pressure. Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 37(3), 339–343.

National Association of Colleges and Employers. (2015, November 18). Job outlook 2016: The attributes employers want to see on new college graduates’ resumes. Retrieved from https://www.naceweb.org/s11182015/employers-look-for-in-new-hires.aspx

Studer, R., Gomez, P., Hildebrandt, H., Arial, M., & Danuser, B. (2011). Stage fright: its experience as a problem and coping with it. International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, 84(7), 761–771.

Touré. (2011, April 28). Adele opens up about her inspirations, looks and stage fright. Rolling Stone. Retrieved from https://www.rollingstone.com/music/news/adele-opens-up-about-her-inspirations-looks-and-stage-fright-20120210?page=3